Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?

The article from Wikipedia, edited by myself…this is a long read and needs more information but for the average person this is detailed enough..

Term

Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry. This is a form of exogamy (marrying outside of one’s social group) and can be seen in the broader context of miscegenation (mixing of different racial groups in marriage, cohabitation, or sexual relations).

Now in the 21st Century it is more common for interracial marriages but at the same time their is a higher number of divorces then before.

Are the two linked? Could be? but perhaps not, however due to stats,these might not be highly accurate but interesting nevertheless.

I would like comments to this blog as I believe their is many unified comments on this subject aswell as against it…

Legality of Interracial Marriages

Now legal in most countries certain jurisdictions have had regulations banning or restricting interracial marriage in the past.

These included South Africa under apartheid; Germany in the Nazi period; and many states of the United States, particularly in the South. In both Nazi Germany and certain American states, such laws have been closely linked to eugenics programs.

The US has some interesting results and compared to the UK shows a uprise of these marriages..

In Social Trends in America and Strategic Approaches to the Negro Problem (1948), Gunnar Myrdal ranked the social areas where restrictions were imposed by Southern whites on the freedom of African-Americans through racial segregation from the least to the most important: jobs, courts and police, politics, basic public facilities, “social equality” including dancing, handshaking, and most important, marriage. This ranking scheme seems to explain the way in which the barriers against desegregation fell.

Of less importance was the segregation in basic public facilities, which was abolished with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The most tenacious form of legal segregation, the banning of interracial marriage, was not fully lifted until the last anti-miscegenation laws were struck down in 1967 by the Supreme Court ruling in Loving v. Virginia.

Statistics

The number of interracial marriages in the United States has been on the rise: from 310,000 in 1970, to 651,000 in 1980, and 1,161,000 in 1992, according to the US Census of 1993.

Interracial marriages represented 0.7% of all marriages in 1970, rising to 1.3% in 1980 and 2.2% in 1992. With the introduction of the mixed-race category, the 2000 census revealed interracial marriage to be somewhat more widespread, with 2,669,558 interracial marriages recorded, or 4.9% of all marriages.

It should be noted that these statistics do not take into account ethnic groups within the same broad categories – for example a marriage involving a person of Japanese origin and a person of Indian origin would not be considered ‘mixed’. Nor is hispanic(why is this term used? the polite word for SPIC!) status taken into account according to the “Census 2000 PHC-T-19. Hispanic Origin and Race of Coupled Households: 2000”. U. S. Census Bureau.

Married Couples in the United States in 2006

White Husband married a White Wife 50,224,000
Black Husband married a White Wife 286,000
Asian Husband married a White Wife 174,000
Other Husband married a White Wife 535,000

White Husband married a Black Wife 117,000
Black Husband married a Black Wife 3,965,000
Asian Husband married a Black Wife 6,000
Other Husband married a Black Wife 23,000

White Husband married an Asian Wife 530,000
Black Husband married an Asian Wife 34,000
Asian Husband married an Asian Wife 2,493,000
Other Husband married an Asian Wife 41,000

White Husband married an Other Wife 489,000
Black Husband married an Other Wife 45,000
Asian Husband married an Other Wife 13,000
Other Husband married an Other Wife 558,000

Some things I noticed which the articel elaborates on is the following

Now what interests me is the rate of Other Husband marrying a White Wife is higher then the two previous results of Black Husband married a White Wife, Asian Husband married a White Wife put together

Also double the amount of Black Males marry White Women then White Males marrying Black Women.

But even though interracial marriages are more accepted. White Males are 4 times likely to marry an Asian women then a Black women, the link between this I will read up on more. I have a theory but i would like to back it up

Based on these statistics:

Whites are the least likely to marry interracially, although in absolute terms whites are involved in interracial marriages more than any other racial group. 1.9% of married white women and 2.2% of married white men have a non-white spouse. 1.0% of married white men are married to an Asian woman, and 1.0% of married white women are married to a man classified as “other”.
3.7% of married black women and 8.4% of married black men have a non-black spouse. 6.6% of married black men, and 2.8% of married black women, have a white spouse. Only 0.1% of married black women are married to an Asian man, representing the least represented marital combination.

19.5% of married Asian women and 7.2% of married Asian men have a non-Asian spouse. 17.1% of married Asian women are married to a white spouse, and 3.5% of married Asian men have a spouse woman classified as “other”.

There is a notable disparity in the rates of exogamy by Asian males and females. Only 25% of Asian/white marriages involve an Asian male and white female, and only 15% Asian/black marriages involve an Asian male and a black female

Benefits of interracial marriage to the United States

All these quotes from After 40 Years, Interracial Marriage Flourishing”, Race & Ethnicity, MSNBC (2007-04-15). Retrieved on 2008-07-15.

“The racial divide in the U.S. is a fundamental divide. … but when you have the ‘other’ in your own family, it’s hard to think of them as ‘other’ anymore. We see a blurring of the old lines, and that has to be a good thing.” Michael Rosenfeld, Stanford University Sociologist

“I think the children of [interracial] families like ours will be able to make a difference in the world, and do things we weren’t able to do. It’s really important to put all their cultures together, to be aware of their roots, so they grow up not just as Swedish or Haitian or American, but as global citizens.” Michelle Cadeau

“[A]gainst the tragic backdrop of American history, the flowering of multiracial intimacy is a profoundly moving and encouraging development.” Kelley Kenney, Kutztown University Professor

Interracial marriage by pairing

Native American and Asian

Filipino Americans have frequently married Native American and Alaskan Native people. In the 17th century, when Filipinos were under Spanish rule, the Spanish colonists ensured a Filipino trade between the Philippines and the Americas. When the Mexicans revolted against the Spanish, the Filipinos first escaped into Mexico, then traveled to Louisiana, where the exclusively male Filipinos married Native American women. In the 1920s, Filipino American communities grew in Alaska, and Filipino American men married Alaskan Native women. On the west coast, Filipino Americans married Native American women in Bainbridge Island Washington.

There was a frequency of racial intermarriage between Japanese Americans and Cherokee Indians in California during the 1930s, since these ethnic groups were introduced or hired as farm laborers and they had been in high contact with each other.[citation needed] “[W]hile in the 1920s Japanese men married Eskimo women throughout western Alaska

Asian and White

Marriages between whites and Asians are becoming increasingly common for both genders (Lange, 2005). In 1990, about 69 percent of married 18-30 year-old Asian women were married to Asian men, while 25 percent of married Asian women had white husbands. In 2006, 50 percent of American-bred Asian women were married to Asian men, while 41 percent of American-bred Asian women had white husbands. 60 percent of American-bred Asian men were married to Asian women, while 30 percent of American-bred Asian men had white wives (2006 U.S. Census Bureau). C.N. Le estimated that the gender gap is smaller among the American-born or 1.5 generation Asian Americans.

Asian Americans of both genders who are U.S.-raised are much more likely to be married with whites than their non-U.S.-raised counterparts. Not all Asian ethnicities have similar intermarriage patterns, for instance, South Asian Americans were overwhelmingly endogamous, with a small amount of outmarriage to other ethnic groups.

The interracial marriage disparity for South Asian Americans was low with outmarriage to whites slightly higher for Indian American males whereas all other major Asian groups had more outmarriage for women. A 2001 U.S. national survey conducted by Yankelovich Partners in collaboration with the Anti-Defamation League indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of marriage with an Asian American.

Black and White

Although mixed-race partnering has increased, the United States still shows disparities between African American male and African American female endogamy statistics. The 1990 census reports that 17.6% of African American marriages occur with White Americans. Yet, African American men are 2.6 times more likely to be married to White American women than African American women to White American men.

In the 2000 census, 239,477 African American male to White American female and 95,831 White American male to African American female marriages were recorded, again showing the 2.5-1 ratio. In 2007, 4.6% of married African Americans were married to a white partner, and 0.4% of married White Americans were married to an African American.

Asian and Black

With African Americans and Asian Americans, the ratios are even further imbalanced, with 59.8% more Asian female/Black male marriages than Asian male/Black female marriages. However, C.N. Le estimated that Asian Americans of the 1.5 generation and of the five largest Asian American ethnic groups had black male/Asian female marriages 27.2% more than Asian male/black female relationships. Even though the disparity between Black and Asian interracial marriages by gender is high according to the 2000 US Census, the total numbers of Asian/Black interracial marriages are low, numbering only 0.22% percent for Asian male marriages and 1.30% percent of Asian female marriages, partially contributed by the recent flux of Asian immigrants.

Historically, Chinese American men married African American women in high proportions to their total marriage numbers due to few Chinese American women being in the United States.

After the Emancipation Proclamation, many Chinese people immigrated to the American South, particularly Arkansas, to work on plantations. The tenth US Census of Louisiana counted 57% of interracial marriages between these Chinese Americans to be with African Americans and 43% to be with White American women. After the Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese American men had fewer potential Chinese American wives, so they increasingly married African American women on the West Coast[13]. In Jamaica and other Caribbean nations as well many Chinese males over past generations took up Black female wives gradually assimilating or absorbing many Chinese descendants into the black community or the overall mixed-race community.

Native American and White

The interracial disparity for Native Americans is low. According to the 1990 US Census (which only counts indigenous people with US-government-recognized tribal affiliation), Native American women intermarried white Americans 2% more than Native American men married White women.

Historically, in Latin America, and to a lesser degree in Anglo America, these groups have intermarried at very high rates. Many countries in Latin America have large Mestizo populations and in many cases mestizos are the largest ethnic group in their respective countries.

Marriage squeeze

A new term has arisen to describe the social phenomenon of the so-called “marriage squeeze” for African American females.

The marriage squeeze refers to the belief that the most eligible and desirable African American men are marrying non-African American women, leaving those African American women who wish to marry African American men with fewer partnering options. According to Newsweek, 43% of black women between the ages of 30-34 have never been married. Several explanations of this phenomenon have been advanced.

It may be due to the lingering effects of social ostracism to which white American men who married African American women were subjected in the past. A 2006 survey found that the number of white Americans would consider marrying across the colour line is one in five.

It may also be the result of a desire among African American women to marry African American men due to concepts such as racial loyalty, and the internalized stereotypical belief that non-African American men would not find them attractive. There is also the lingering belief that negative social stereotypes preclude them being viewed as anything but sexual objects by non-African American men.

Lastly, there is a desire among educated women of all races to “marry up” or at least within their social and economic class. Some claim that black women often face either “marrying down” or not marrying at all, when they choose to restrict their marriage prospects to African American men. Also, rates of incarceration for marriage age African American males are far higher than rates for females, further contributing to the male/female gap. As of 2002, 10.4% of all black males between the ages of 25 and 29 were sentenced and in prison.

The African American male-female disparity is highest between the ages of 25 – 29, when for every two African American men there are nearly three African American women.

Immigrants and interracial marriage

Racial endogamy is much stronger for immigrants as compared to natives. Immigrants of African descent are 4.9 times more likely than African Americans to marry interracially.[citation needed] Additionally, immigrants of African descent have the highest rates of endogamy of immigrants.

Also, African immigrants are much more likely to marry other same-race immigrants and African Americans, than to out-marry racially. Native-born white Americans are also 1.6 times more likely to marry a native-born black American than an immigrant of African descent. Female immigrants of African descent are generally more likely to marry native-born whites than their male counterparts.

Interracial marriage versus cohabitation

Rates of interracial cohabitation are significantly higher than those of marriage. Although only 7 percent of married black men have white wives, 13 percent of cohabitating black men have white partners. 25 percent of married Asian women have white spouses, but 45 percent of cohabitating Asian women are with white men—higher than the percentage cohabitating with Asian men (44 percent).

These numbers suggest that the prevalence of intimate interracial contact is greatly underestimated when one focuses only on marriage data.

Now for other countries apart from the US and some interesting factors occur..New Zealand for example doesn’t even record inter-racial marriage data..

Canada

“Canadians do appear more accepting of interracial relations than Americans. According to a poll in the mid-1990s, 87% of Canadians approved of marriages between whites and minorities. While this survey didn’t specify the respondents’ race, another conducted ten years earlier with French Canadian whites showed 88% to be in favor of black-white marriages” Emily Monroy-Race and Interracial Marriage, Canadian Style”. Urban Mozaik (2002). Retrieved on 2008-07-15.

Africa

Indian men have married many African women in Africa. Indians have long been traders in East Africa. The British Empire brought workers into East Africa to build the Uganda Railway. Indians eventually populated South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Rhodesia and Zaire in small numbers. These interracial unions were mostly unilateral marriages between Indian men and East African women

Australia

In 2005 there were slightly more marriages by Australian resident women (13,079) to foreign born partners than Australian resident men (12,714). Australian born males and female residents who married that year were most likely to have married an Australian-born partner (84.1% of marriages involving Australian men; 83.7% of marriages involving Australian females). Male Australian residents who were born in China and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 3.1% of marriages involving a Chinese born groom were to an Australian-born bride).

Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). Only 8.8% of males, and 11% of females, who were American born, Australian resident and married in 2005, married another person from the United States.

In terms of variance between brides and grooms from particular countries in marrying native Australians, 36.7% of brides but only 7.9% of grooms born in countries defined as ‘North Asia’ (Japan and Korea) who married in 2005 did so to an Australian-born partner. Conversely, 64.1% of grooms but only 43.8% of brides born in Lebanon who married in 2005 did so to an Australian-born partner[24].

Japan

In 2003 there were 36,039 international marriages between Japanese and non-Japanese in Japan – about one out of twenty marriages. About 80% of these interracial marriages involved a Japanese male marrying a foreign female (predominantly Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Thai and Brazilian), and 20% involve marriage to a foreign husband (predominantly Korean, American, Chinese, British and Brazilian).

South Korea

International marriages now make up 13 percent of all marriages in Korea. Most of these marriages are unions between a Korean male and a foreign female (mostly from Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia and China) [26].

New Zealand

Interracial marriage has been common in New Zealand since the first full-scale contact between Maori and Europeans in the early 1840s. Racial mingling has been so extensive that most Maori are now of mixed blood. Statistics are not available, because the government does not keep statistics on interraccial marriage or the “percentage” of a person’s ethnic makeup.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom Census 2001

As of 2001, 2% of all UK marriages are interethnic. Despite having a much lower non-white population (9%), mixed marriages are as common as in the United States[27]. New Studies are being conducted by London South Bank University called Parenting ‘Mixed’ Children: Negotiating Difference and Belonging. Two sources this information comes from

Smith, Laura (2007-09-26). “Mixed Matches”, Society, The Guardian. Retrieved on 2008-07-15.

Caballero, Chamion; Edwards, Rosalind. “Cultures of Mixing: Parents from Different Racial, Ethnic and/or Faith Backgrounds”. London South Bank University. Retrieved on 2008-07-15.

Interracial marriage disparities for certain groups

According to the UK 2001 census

Black British males were around 50% more likely than black females to marry outside their race, whereas British Chinese women (30%) were twice as likely as their male counterparts (15%) to marry someone from a different ethnic group. Among British Asians, males were twice as likely to have an inter-ethnic marriage than their female counterparts.

13 Responses to “Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?”

  1. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  2. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  3. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  4. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  5. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  6. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

  7. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry. This is a form of exogamy (marrying outside of one’s social group) and can be seen in the broader context of miscegenation (mixing of different racial groups … […]

  8. […] Interracial marriages-How times change or do they?Female Australian residents who were born in Vietnam and were married in 2005 were least likely to have married an Australian-born resident (only 15.7% of marriages involving a Vietnamese born bride were to an Australian-born groom). … […]

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